Ohio Jewish Chronicle, 1994-07-21, page 01
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'THF Ohio Hist.Society Li.br 198^ Velma Ave*. Columbus, Ohio, t\ 3 211 ^(y:""Sennw„'Cotumbtt$ aiy& the Central Ohio' ..-,' «*' "- Jewish Community since 1882, j VOLUME 72 NUMBER 29 Senate Meats measure restricting troops to Golan page 2 Goldman's family turns to community for comfort Mezznzali ceremony at lexley Heritage Apartments -•/1\,yT, „'.,'' > » page5- laocal cantor is quoted in* Jernsaleii Post'article ■>; *. *: - *■ ■ - '• -Page 6' ft Garlikov, H. Lehv to chair ?E^stijition continning :|or|lJGC AMt MM-School ;}g>"A.a©OT ,5ii^oitie,of,the78^500 refugees in Shanghai, circa, . li>41? were fed twice daily through funds provided *\0& mC Photo from JfoC Archives. .jTjiar 21,1994 13 AV 5754 FEATURE Shanghai — A shelter for Jews fleeing the Holocaust T , * v * . -s -<■*■'''' r' >,*,,-«. t^T 1 „'*/*•*-'- " ' ' * 4 * > < /y /^I^CItttsHI^M*******^^ ' \ y±s < - - v i IS * j * ** , " *! fV l t * * f i ly 1^0$Klinu|H^ M ?,*£ ^ « > ,-'. '( + r , t f ' ' (, < - , • - < I?jf0f|jl "IlKCf****^ ~t\ ^ '■III' -jlJO^? WffwS^M**)^ ' ' *£&Jtt,J%f*£m*4m%]f*. < '/! v /^c •*" >j ,, ft i, ' *■/ t a * - < ft v ' <J &,'v j^+„ ' -; '*< * ' ' -*«>■'„ "' ^, «.'* ' *v ,,5'-i-^tJ. '/ 4H?lJ»TJs0^Pl^ \ y'i'^1'* h ''\,:;''f * *y "'y'v-' ",v,y">> '«« ' ^'^ *»y^i*M^^*iJw0*® ^ ^*6w^PO*JI^*«*»»*j*»9#*t** flp ; Over half a century ago, when many countries were closing their doors to Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, Ellen Lewis came to the exotic refuge ofShanghaj, the only city in the world that 'did' not require apassport. This Chinese port city becameajbaven to Iiewis arid to 30,000'other European 'Jews, seeking an es- . cape -from -Nazi persecution. The first European refugees arrived in Shanghai in March of 1938 from Austria, after, the Anchluss, when Austria was annexed by Germany. These new arrivals had been warmly welcomed and accepted by the Chinese. In 1938, the Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (CAEJF),chaired by Michael Speelman and the : American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) assisted the refugees. Lewis, who arrived in Shanghai with her parents in 1939, still has the two Army/ Navy blankets that JDC gave her and her late husband on their way to the United States in 1947. "Over the years, as one usually does, we have given away clothing and other items. But we never parted with these blankets. ... the blankets still represent security and caring," she said. Lewis, a resident of New York City, noted that JDC provided a daily meal and sent food to Shanghai during the holidays, especially Passover. Lewis added that she still uses Manischewitz matzah today, the same brand that JDC sent her over 50 years ago. "JDC lent a sense of security to the people in Shanghai. There was always the Joint to run to if things got really rough and it was the Joint who kept us alive," said Lewis. Indianapolis resident Ernest Heppner, author of Shanghai Refuge: A Memoir of the World War, If Jewish Ghetto, arrived in Shanghai in March of 1939 with only 80 cents in his pocket. He and his mother left Germany to escape Nazi persecution, via Italy, on the Potsdam ocean liner. Hep- pneir's father and sister stayed behind in Breslau. After arriving in Shanghai, all new arrivals were brought to emergency shelters and issued a blanket and bedsheets, a tin dish, a cup, and a spoon, said Heppner in a recent interview. "Nothing demonstrated more clearly the drastic change that had taken place in our lives than the sight of us dressed in our good heavy European clothing, the women still wearing fashionable hats - and gloves, waiting in line with tin pots in hand for our next meal," he said. Heppner and his mother only stayed in the shelter, called the Embankment building, for two weeks. They later rented a room in a house located in the north end of Hongkew. Life in Shanghai was hard for the refugees, especially the elderly who had a difficult time adjusting to the new surroundings. However, young people were active in various Jewish groups such as the Ha- verim youth group the Thirteenth Rovers of the British Boy Scout Association, to. which Heppner belonged. The refugees consistently tried to maintain normal lifestyles, Lewis added. The Jewish community frequented coffee houses, restaurants, theaters and dances, she recalled. The community also established a Jewish Police Force and several Jewish schools, she said. According to Heppner, in 1938 the Jewish Communal Association, or Judisch Ge- meinde, was formed and succeeded in establishing an organization of persons elected to represent the interests ofthe Jewish community, providing for the religious and secular needs of the Orthodox, Conservative and liberal. "Later it was expanded to provide basic Jewish educational services, and most important, a legal department that operated an arbitration court," he noted. Heppner added that since the legal requirements for a mar-y riagei ceremony; according' to' Chinese law did not correspond to Jewish law, "the Judisch Ge- meinde also provided its members with a civil ceremony as required by Chinese civil code, performed by one of its lawyers, and a religious ceremony performed by a rabbi." About 18,000 Jews from Central Europe came to Shanghai between 1938 and 1941. The community needed to be organized, and their needs had to be met. As food and employment grew Scarce and difficulties surfaced with the local Jewish leadership, Heppner noted that in May 1941, "JDC sent one of its most capable staff, members, Laura Margolis, to assist the American consulate in Shanghai and try to speed up applications for immigration to the United States." Margolis was also responsible for investigating refugee complaints and reporting on the general situation. A second JDC representative, Manuel Siegel, joined Margolis on the eve of Pearl Harbor. Under the Japanese occupation Margolis and Siegel were classified as enemy aliens. They were permitted to remain free until February 1943 when they were interned and sent to a POW camp. By then, they had succeeded in organizing a system of emergency relief and had found locally the heavy equipment essential to running steam kitchens capable of feeding 10,000 people per day. These kitchens kept the refugees alive for the duration of the war. "There is no doubt in my mind that without the professionalism, the dedication, the persistence, and the nerve — the chutzpa — displayed by Laura Margolis, thousands of refugees would have slowly starved to death," stressed Heppner. Margolis was repatriated in September 1943, but Siegal was not freed until V-J Day, in August 1945. "According to"Heppner, at the end of 1952 about 570 people remained in Shanghai, those who were ill or had no one to care for them. Their care was made possible by JDC, which also assisted the last member ofthe European Jewish community of Shanghai, who passed away in 1982. "We must not forget that while in Europe, when the lights were turned off and the gates to shelters were slammed shut one after the other, said Ambassador Milton A. Wolf, President ofthe JDC, "Shanghai was an oasis of tolerance to the needs of Jews fleeing the Holocaust." Editor's Note: Activities of the JDC are funded by the regular campaigns ofthe United Jewish Appeal and federations throughout the United States, including the Columbus Jewish Federation. Israel offers aid NEW YORK (JTA) — Israel has informed the United Nations that it is ready to offi?r medical aid to Victims ofthe strife in Rwanda. This assistance would be in addition to the food and medicine Israel has already sent. For some months now, Israel has been discussing with U.N. officials the possibility of sending a mobile medical unit to assist U.N. efforts in Africa. This is part of Israel's attempts to integrate itself fully within United Nations activities, following the decline of anti-Israel rhetoric at the world body. te »i- ,i,. 11,111 >, > i ■■ > I. ■ > » > i > » » , > > <■ « i > ,. * i • I. i i I i l I i i I i <■.. i t ., > I l, l ■ I il i 1 ts, >. S ,' i , I ( I ■) I I I I t
|Title||Ohio Jewish Chronicle, 1994-07-21|
|Subject||Jews -- Ohio -- Periodicals|
|Place||Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)|
|Creator||Ohio Jewish Chronicle|
|Collection||Ohio Jewish Chronicle|
|Submitting Institution||Columbus Jewish Historical Society|
|File Size||2716 Bytes|
|Title||Ohio Jewish Chronicle, 1994-07-21, page 01|
Ohio Hist.Society Li.br
198^ Velma Ave*.
t\ 3 211
^(y:""Sennw„'Cotumbtt$ aiy& the Central Ohio'
..-,' «*' "- Jewish Community since 1882, j
Senate Meats measure
restricting troops to Golan
Goldman's family turns
to community for comfort
Mezznzali ceremony at
lexley Heritage Apartments
-•/1\,yT, „'.,'' > » page5-
laocal cantor is quoted
in* Jernsaleii Post'article
■>; *. *: - *■ ■ - '• -Page 6'
ft Garlikov, H. Lehv to chair
:|or|lJGC AMt MM-School
,5ii^oitie,of,the78^500 refugees in Shanghai, circa,
. li>41? were fed twice daily through funds provided
*\0& mC Photo from JfoC Archives.
13 AV 5754
Shanghai — A shelter for Jews fleeing the Holocaust
T , * v * . -s -<■*■'''' r'
>,*,,-«. t^T 1 „'*/*•*-'- " ' ' * 4 * > <
/y /^I^CItttsHI^M*******^^ '
\ y±s < - - v i IS * j * ** , " *! fV l t * * f i
M ?,*£ ^ « > ,-'. '( + r , t f ' ' (, < - , •
- < I?jf0f|jl "IlKCf****^ ~t\
^ '■III' -jlJO^? WffwS^M**)^ '
' *£&Jtt,J%f*£m*4m%]f*. < '/! v /^c •*" >j ,, ft i, ' *■/ t a * - < ft v